Languages


Dick Grune

I am a native speaker of Dutch and speak English, German, and Hebrew fluently, and French and Italian more or less passably. I have been studying Korean since 2012. As to the other languages mentioned below, I do not really speak or read them; I only have read a lot about them.

* Books

* The Korean Verb -- Structured and Complete (Routledge, 2020)
1. Introduces a novel approach to the Korean verb ‐ the three-stems method. 2. Exhaustively treats the Korean verb form, regular and irregular. 3. Presents an annotated list of 200+ entries of verb endings, brought into the three-stems method.

* Burushaski - An Extraordinary Language in the Karakoram Mountains (1998, out of print)
Twenty years later a fierce battle rages among linguists whether it is related to Basque, Chinese and Navaho.

* Hopi - Survey of an Uto-Aztecan Language (1995, out of print)
An easy introduction to an American Indian language of a certain renown.

* Korean

* Multiple-subject Sentences in Korean
Korean is one of the few languages that has sentences with more than one subject. Given the way Korean combines adjectives and relative clauses, this is a quite natural phenomenon.

* Anatomy of the Korean Vowels
The Korean vowels get very different descriptions in various educational material and on the Internet. This paper gives a model of the speech mechanism that accounts for the sounds of the vowels and their varying descriptions.

* Anatomy of the Korean Stops
The Korean stops (ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, and to a certain extent ㅅ) occur in three forms, lenis, fortis, and aspirated. This is puzzling, because no other language has this distinction. This paper explains the origin of this distinction by going back to basics: the speech mechanism itself.

* Ho-Min Sohn's Korean Verb Morphology
Summarizing Sohn's 64-page chapter on the subject into 21 pages, while converting all Yale romanization back to Hangul.

* The Shoe is on the Wrong Foot -- Fun with Korean Spelling
In many Korean words with batchim (patchim), one consonant seems to be in the wrong syllable. If we move them back (under the frowning looks of the National Institute of Korean Language!), these words suddenly become easier to understand.

* A Few Learning Aids for Korean

Non-linguistic Items

* A Very Short History of Korea
Bird's eye view of the history of Korea, from 2333 B.C. to today, on two A4 sheets.

* Diagram of the Administrative Structure of South Korea
The Netherlands consist administratively of provinces, which consist of municipalities. That's all there is. Korea has a far more complicated structure, with cities that are not part of a province, wards, districts, etc., partly divided in urban and rural. The Wikipedia explains all this very well, but I found it difficult to remember and visualize, so I drew a diagram of it.

* Dutch (Nederlands)

* Open en gesloten korte o in het Nederlands (nieuwe versie 2014) (Open and Closed Short o in Dutch)
Dutch spoken in some Eastern parts of Twente and Gelderland has two different o sounds in short syllables. Full account of the phenomenon by a native speaker (me).

* De Nederlandse klinkers met hun spellingen (The Dutch Vowels and Their Spellings)
Dutch has nine vowels, some both short and long, and nine diphthongs, and their spelling and pronunciation sometimes depend on the following letter. This gives 42 combinations, which are summed up here, with examples.

* Making Sense of Dutch Word Order
Dutch word order is confusing, with part of the verb rather at the beginning of a sentence and the rest at the end (or reverse); and the words in between have to come in a particular non-English order. This tells how, and a little bit of the why.

Some Errata to H.R. Stern's Excellent Booklet "Essential Dutch Grammar"

* Hebrew

* Rondleiding door het gesproken Hebreeuws (1991) (A Guided Tour of Spoken Hebrew (in Dutch))
A very simple exposition of most of the features of Modern Hebrew, all in Latin letters.

* Other Writings on Languages

* A Survey of the Uto-Aztecan Language Luiseño (Calfornia) 91997)

* A Survey of the Athabaskan Language Mattole (Calfornia) (2015)
A simpler cousin of Navaho.

* Is Klingon an Ohlonean Language?
Huh? Why should it be??

* Annotated Literature References on Languages and Linguistics


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